Textile substrates are formed from yarns or fibre webs by several techniques including weaving, knitting, tufting, and nonwoven formation. Composites of textile substrates are formed by bonding two fabrics together by use of an adhesive to form a bonded substrate or backed substrate or by application of cut fibres to an adhesive-coated substrate to form a flocked substrate.
A draft indicates the number of heald shafts used to produce a given design and the order is which warp ends are threaded through the heald eyes of the heald shaft. The principle of drafting (i.e. putting of ends on different healed shafts) is that ends which work in different order require separate heald shafts. To keep matters simple, we can also say that the ends that work alike are put on the same heald shaft.
The basic mechanisms in any type of looms can be classified into Primary (shedding, picking & beat up), secondary and Auxiliary motions. Shedding opens the warp sheet into layers. The picking causes the shuttle carrying weft to be propelled from one end of the loom to another. The beat up motion lays the previously laid weft to the fell of the cloth. The secondary motion comprise of take up and let off motions. The auxiliary motions consist of the warp stop, weft stop and warp protector motions.
Weaving looms can range from quite simple to very complex. Looms have been used to produce cloth for thousands of years, and while technology has improved the loom, the basic strategies and practices remain much the same. Understanding the parts of the loom can help you learn to weave or simply learn a bit more about how weaving works.